Understanding the differences between databases and ontologies is imperative for the development of an effective translational architecture.
Information is data stored in a database
The exponential growth in data and information is based on mature science and technology. This approach is the simplest path to measurable outcomes, but data on their own give no idea of their significance and have little value. It is necessary to link items of data together.
Knowledge is information in a useful context
An ontology is a controlled vocabulary. Transformation from information to knowledge depends on the abstraction methods, not the volume of data or speed of the search. Constructing an ontology is difficult and labour-intensive. More information is available in deBellis, 2021 (see references).